Atoms, Thoms, and A Postmodern Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements
Published: September 8, 2010


During the 1800s, chemists began to look for patterns in the elements. They discovered that patterns appeared when the elements were arranged in order of increasing mass or weight. This led some chemists to organize periodic tables of the chemical elements is a tabular that shows the repeating (“periodic”) pattern of their properties. The word “periodic” means “a regular, repeated pattern”. In the periodic table, the horizontal rows of chemical columns of chemical elements, called families or groups, are related. A chemical element or compound is a substance that cannot be further analyzed by known chemical methods. As The American Heritage Student’s Dictionary, “Modern science has identified over one hundred substances, such as iron, carbon, oxygen, etc., from which the entire universe appears to be made. They do not appear, however, to be simple, nor is there reason to believe that all of them are known.”1 They all have different chemical properties. Chemical properties are characteristics of an element or compound that determine how it will react with other elements or compounds.

The main value of the periodic table of the chemical elements is its provision of a framework for classifying, systematizing, and comparing all the many different forms of chemical behavior, so that the chemical properties of elements can be predicted based on their location in the table.

In current modern chemistry, the periodic table is organized according to protonic numbers, the “so-called” atomic numbers, determined by the number of protons and neutrons located in the nucleus of a false model of the atom. As the American physical scientists Leonard Bernstein and Harry Wong explain things. The model is usually an imitation of the real thing. It may not always look like the original, but it acts the same way…It helps explain something we have never seen, according to the model. But a model is only useful if an experiment can show it might be true.”2 I maintain that the model of the atom used in modern chemistry is a false model of the structure of the atom, because it does fit the original and proper definition of the atom. In addition to this, experiments show that matter, which is made up of atoms, does not behave in accord with the model. I appropriately call it a “thom,” for reasons that I explained in my book The End of Pseudo- Science, published in 2007.

As the original and true Atomic theory of matter explains, which was originated during the second half of the 400s BC by the ancient Greek Atomists Leucippus and Democritus, “Atoms are the ultimate particles of matter; they are absolutely solid and unalloyed and contain no void… They must of necessity be everlasting.”3 The best way to visualize the atom is as a “ball bearing” (a hardened steel ball). Atoms are the smallest particles of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. Nothing can be smaller than an atom but another atom. Atoms are the ultimate building-blocks of matter. There are various ways to determine the mass of an atom. One way is to base it upon the Planck length, a unit of length about 10-20 times the size of the proton. As the American physicist Lee Smolin explains, “The Planck length is in some sense the size of the smallest thing that can be observed.”4 Since atoms are too small to be seen even with the most powerful electron microscope, which has a magnification power up to a million times, it’s reasonable to consider the upper limit of an atom’s mass to be 10 -16 grams, a million times smaller than the Planck length. However, I favor comparing the mass of the average atom to the electron, which has a mass of 9.110 x 10- 28 grams. 1 estimate that the average atom has a mass 1 million times smaller than that of the electron, 9.110 x 10-34 grams.

In modern chemistry, atoms are erroneously defined as the smallest particles of chemical elements that have all the properties of the elements, and that each atom contains still smaller particles--protons, neutrons, and electrons. This definition applies to the thoms, not atoms. The protons and neutrons are crowded into the nucleus at the center of the thom, where they constantly vibrate. A proton is a positively charged particle. A neutron is a particle that has no electric charge: in other words it is neutral. The electrons are negatively charged particles located outside the nucleus. They travel around the nucleus at fixed orbital distances, called “energy levels”, or “shells,” at tremendous speed. According to Albert Einstein, an electron’s mass can be converted into energy, which is regarded as having no mass. According to the Atomic theory of matter, nothing can exist without mass; energy is the activity of matter, or its atoms. The gravitational energies (or activities) of compounds of molecules have produced the thoms and their tinier subthomic molecules. The gravitational interaction of compounds of thoms produced the chemical elements. Let it be clearly understood that all chemical elements are compounds of thoms. A thom is the smallest compound of molecules that produces a substance with specific properties, and also the smallest compound of molecules that can retain all of the properties of a substance in a chemical change or reaction. It’s very important to understand that nearly everything taught in modern chemistry and physics about their “so-called” atom is wrong, because it applies to the thom, not to the real atom. Now keep in mind, as the true Atomic theory of matter explains, “Material objects are of two kinds, atoms and compounds of atoms. The atoms themselves cannot be swamped by any force, for they are preserved indefinitely by any force, for they are preserved indefinitely by their absolute solidity.”5 In 1811, the Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro named compounds of atoms “molecules.” According to Avogadro’s law of gases, “Equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.”6 Of course, he had no idea of what the number might be, and he never tried to figure it out. However, his law proved that an atom and a molecule are not the same, and that no element is an individual or single atom. Incredibly, these two facts are ignored in modern science.

In 1897, the English physicist Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) discovered the electron, also known as a cathode ray, which he said was smaller than the proton. In 1909, it was determined that the mass of an electron equals 1/1836 grams, about 1000 times smaller than the proton, which has a mass of 1.673 x 10-24 grams. This led to the erroneous notion that the electron is 1000 times smaller than the real atom. The mass of the proton is used to represent the mass of the so-called hydrogen atom, which is in fact the “hydrogen thom.” The hydrogen thom is the simplest, lightest, and most abundant of all the known elements. It’s a colorless, tasteless, and odorless nonmetallic element that is a highly flammable gas at normal temperatures. It ranks as the first element in the current modern periodic table, which is based on the following modern periodic law of the elements: “The properties of elements are functions of their atomic numbers.”7 This should be restated as follows: The properties of elements are the functions of their protonic numbers. I say this because the number of protons in the nucleus of the thom is used to identify the elements in the modern periodic table. If you check a periodic table, you’ll see that each element is identified by a different number of protons. For example, hydrogen is identified by having 1 proton, carbon by having 6 protons, and oxygen by having 8 protons. What needs to be understood is that the properties of elements are the functions of their constituent thoms, not just one subthomic particle. In fact, the properties of the protons are functions of the behavior of their own constituent atoms. I propose the following corrective periodic law of the elements: The properties of elements are the functions the gravitational interactions of their constituent thoms. Keep in mind that the elements consist of thoms made up of atomic molecules, mainly protons, neutrons, and electrons.

I will use my newly proposed periodic law of the elements to create a postmodern periodic table and chart. To understand the table and chart, you need to know the special definitions of the following terms:

  1. Atoms: the smallest invisible and indivisible particles of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. I assign them the average or upper limit mass of 9 x 10-34 grams.
  2. Atomic mass number: the sum of the number of atoms that makes up the protons, neutrons, and electrons inside a thom.
  3. Atomic weight: the pull of gravity on an atom’s mass on the Earth is about 10 newtons.
  4. Electronic mass number: the sum of the number of electrons inside a thom. The hydrogen thom contains 1 electron, which is a million times larger than an atom.
  5. Element: any substance composed of thoms that all have the same number of protons in their nuclei. An element cannot be broken down by chemical means.
  6. Postmodern physics: A definitive break with Einsteinian physics based upon belief in the natural philosophy of Atomism.
  7. Protonic number: the number of protons in the nucleus of a thom.
  8. Thoms: the compounds of molecules that produce and retain the characteristic properties of the elements; each element is a thom.
  9. Thomic mass number: the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a thom’s nucleus.

Thomic weight: the pull of gravity on a thom’s mass. These special scientific terms and definitions give rise to changes in other scientific terms and definitions that change our understanding about the nature of elements. A few examples are:

  1. Nuclear reactor: a structure in which thomic fission takes place.
  2. Fission: the splitting of the thom’s nucleus to produce heat.
  3. Heat: the degree to which something is hot due to the rapid vibration of its constituent molecules, or compounds of atoms.
  4. Particle radiation: the flow of atoms or molecules outward from an object or substance. They flow continually outward from the sun in the forms of heat and light.

* The thomic mass numbers in parentheses are those of the most common istopes. Isotopes are thoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons in the nucleus and thus have different thomic weights. A thom is identified by the number of protons in its nucleus, not its neutrons. The number of protons in the nucleus of the thom determine its protonic number. For example, carbon has 6 protons in its nucleus. The proton number for carbon is 6. A thom with a protonic number of 8 is called oxygen. Thoms combine in different ways to form different kinds of elements. A thom can be made up of thirty decillion atoms or as few as 1 decillion. One decillion could be written with a 1 followed by 34 zeros (10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000).

In modern physics and chemistry, each element is ridiculously indentified as being an atom, such as a carbon atom. More ridiculous, it is claimed that in nuclear change an atom’s mass is destroyed and becomes non-matter called energy and that this energy can be changed into matter. This claim is really about the thom, but it’s not of the thom either. I argue that ck matter can neither be created nor destroyed and that energy is a false classification of radiated particles of matter. In the above postmodern periodic table and list of the chemical elements, the elements are arranged in the same order as they are shown in modern periodic tables. However, it supersedes those tables with its display of the elements under correct scientific headings. I propose that these headings be used to create new periodic tables.

I regard the numerical values assigned to the elements as being tentative, because they do not reflect values based upon new and improved ways of measuring particles using lasers. You probably noticed that my newly proposed periodic table does not show a heading for ck listing the numbers of electrons that are given in some modern periodic tables as subthomic particles. They are the same numbers as the protons in each thom. Below is a table of the main subthomic particles. Notice that the atom is a subthomic particle. Keep in mind that it’s the smallest particle of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. There is no such thing as subatomic particles.


References:

  1. The American Heritage Students Dictionary (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1977), p. 299.
  2. Leandard Bernstein and Harry Wong, Earth Science, second edition (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979), p. 10.
  3. Lucretius, On the Nature of The Universe, translated by R.E. Latham and revised with a new introduction and notes by John Godwin (London: Penguin Books, 1951), p. 22.
  4. Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006), p. 227.
  5. Lucretius, On the Nature of The Universe, p. 20
  6. Surendra Verma, The Little Book of Scientific Principles, Theories, & Things (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.2005), p. 68.
  7. Ibid.