Freeing Science from Modern Pseudo-Physics, Based On the Energy Theory
Published: August 4, 2010


I believe that the surest and quickest way to free science from modern pseudo-physics is to show a contrast between the foundational principles of postmodern Atomism (or postmodern physics, or postmodern natural philosophy) that I founded in 2007, with my book The End of pseudo-Science, and the foundational principles of the three theories that dominate modern physics: the Big Bang theory, Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, and quanta theory. I founded my postmodern Atomism on the foundational principles of Epicurean Atomism, Newtonian Atomism, Daltonian Atomism, and my own Atomism. Let it be understand that if the foundational principles of a scientific theory does not hold, neither will the rest of the theory. Together, above types of Atomism provide us with valid statements of the fundamental laws of Nature. They describe the laws of Nature as accurately and exactly as possible.

Let us define our terms. What is science? As defined by the Russian-born American philosopher Ayn Rand (1905- 1982), “Science is systematic knowledge gained by the use of reason based on observation.”1 “Reason”, Ayn Rand explains, is “the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by man’s senses.”2 As the English philosopher Catherine Osborne explains, “In reality, science always advances by mathematical and logical reasoning which deduces how putative observations are to be systematically explained and adjusted, so as to make sense within a theory amenable to reason.”3 A genuine scientific theory is a set of ideas which offer an accepted explanation of observable facts and relationships. In order for real science to advance, it must be freed from modern pseudo-physics.

What is a law of Nature? A law of nature is a statement that explains how something works in Nature. Nature is the forces that produce and control all things in the universe.

What is physics? Physics is the science that deals which the nature of the universe. It tries to explain what the universe is made of, how it works (or operates), and why it behaves the way it does.

What is pseudo-physics? I define pseudo-physics as physics that gives a description of the nature of the universe that contradicts reality and violates the laws of nature. Every pseudo-physics is based upon a false scientific theory. A scientific theory is a set of principles suggested as an explanation of phenomena. A scientific principle is a rule or law concerned with or explaining how something acts or operates. A fundamental principle is a general truth or rule on which other truths are based. Let it be clearly understood that if the foundational principle of a theory does not hold, neither will the rest of the theory.

What is Atomism? Atomism, also known as “the Atomic theory,” is a Greek originated metaphysical theory that asserts that everything in the universe is produced and controlled by its constituent “atoms.” It explains that the universe is made up of matter and void, and that all matter is made up of infinitesimal atoma (English, “atoms”). The English word “atom” comes from the Greek word atomos, meaning “uncuttable.” (Atomos is the singular of atoma.) I maintain, as I have always maintained, that if the description of a particle does not fit this definition of an atom, it cannot be an atom. This means that the particle called an atom in modern physics, which has been split into subatomic particles, is actually misnamed.

The theory of Atomism, hereafter referred to as just Atomism, or the Atomic theory, explains that atoms are the smallest particles of matter that exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. If a matter is repeatedly cut up, the end results will be “uncuttable particles of matter” or “atoms.” In other words, all matter can be divided into “small particles that cannot be further divided” or “atoms.” This means that atoms are the ultimate building- blocks of matter. They are the things from which nature forms, increases, and sustains all things, and into which nature resolves them when they decay or disintegrate. These atoms are always flying off the surface of objects (aggregates of atoms) and forming new objects, and they cannot themselves be destroyed, although the aggregates they form can be broken up. The atoms go on forever forming new aggregates, or “bodies of matter”.

Atomism explains that since it is impossible for atoms to come into existence out of nothing or pass away into nothing, they are eternal (uncreated) and indestructible. To quote the ancient Greek Atomism Democritus, “Nothing exists but atoms and the void; everything else is opinion.”4 The void is pure empty space or nothingness. It’s the opposite of matter, or atoms. Atomism explains that the void has no qualities whatever, do powers, no potentiality, and no intangibility in any way. This means that it is not a source of any kind of energy (Greek, energeia), or activity, directed towards work.

The following are the foundational principles of Epicurean Atomism:

  1. Nothing can be created out of nothing (the non-existent).
  2. Nothing can be destroyed into nothing (masslessness).
  3. Matter cannot be destroyed into nothing, but only broken up into constituent atoms.
  4. Matter and the void together form the universe.
  5. Matter and the void are the only ultimate realities.
  6. Anything that can be named is either a property of matter or an accident of matter and void.
  7. Nothing can exist which is non-atomic, except the void.
  8. The atoms are solid, everlasting, and simple.
  9. Being solid and simple, the atoms are indivisible.
  10. The atoms cannot undergo change.
  11. Although physically indivisible, the atoms have parts, which are the minima of extension and magnitude.

I hold these foundational principles of Epicurean Atomism to be indubitable and evidential. They have been logically inferred from the observation of matter and its behavior, which makes them scientifically testable.

For the Atomists, they are the ultimate metaphysical principles underlying the empirical principles of physics. For them, they serve as the foundational tenets of real physics. As the American theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize winner Richard P. Feynman (1918-1988) explained, “Physics is the most fundamental and all-inclusive of the sciences, and has had a profound effect on all scientific development. In fact, physics is the present-day equivalent of what used to be called natural philosophy, from which most of our modern sciences arose.”5 This explanation about physics being the present-day equivalent of what used to be called is not exactly correct, natural philosophy because natural philosophy is broader than what we define as physics today. Natural philosophy included both physics and metaphysics. Metaphysics is the science that mainly deals with the nature of ultimate reality or first causes of phenomena, that lie beneath or beyond the reach of the senses. Functionally speaking, it is the transphysical science that bridges the gap between the physical world and the world of reality that cannot be sensed.

To try to understand the world of reality, it employs reason and logic and uses “thought experiments.” It is important to realize that most of what is studied by theoretical physicists today, namely, the “so-called” atoms and subatomic particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, and many others) that have never been actually seen, lies in the realm of metaphysics, not physics. True physics deals only with inanimate, or non- living, things that can be seen, touched, smelled, tasted, or heard, such as rocks, trees, water, air, light, and heat. Metaphysically speaking, all of these are aggregates atoms. Nothing exists but atoms and aggregates of atoms, except the void. I will reiterate: Atoms are the smallest particles of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. This means that they are the ultimate three-dimensional building-blocks of matter. As Epicurean Atomism explains, they are the things from which nature forms, increases, and sustains all things, and into which nature again resolves them when they decay or disintegrate.

Newtonian Atomism made its appearance in Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), where he explained that “the least parts of bodies to be – all extended, hard and impenetrable, and moveable, and endowed with their inertia.”6 In his Opticks, Book 3, Part 1 (1704), he says: “Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another, and may not bodies receive much of their activity from the particles of light which enter into their composition?...the changing of bodies into light, and light into bodies, is very conformable to the course of nature, which seems delighted with transmutations….”7 In a short paper on Some Thoughts about the Nature of Acids Newton says “All bodies have particles which do mutually attract one another: The sums of the least of which of which may be called particles of the first composition, and the collections or aggregates arising from, primary sums; or the sums of these sums may be called particles of the second composition, etc.”8

In 1808, an English chemist named John Dalton (1766-1844), who is regarded as the father of modern Atomic theory, combined the theory of atoms with the modern theory of elements. He held that:

  1. All elements are made up of infinitesimal atoms.
  2. All atoms of a given element are identical.
  3. The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element.
  4. Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds.
  5. Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes.

These principles are the foundational principles of Atomic chemistry. I call them the foundational principles of Daltonian Atomism.

Dalton conceived of atoms being combined in each element as a simple juxtaposition, with each atom acting in accordance with Newton’s law of gravity and laws of motion. I do too.

In my founding of postmodern Atomism, I made the following statements, along with those of Epicurean, Newtonian, and Daltonian Atomism, its foundational principles:

  1. Nature, as the one and only reality, is absolute; it does not depend on anything else for its existence and functioning and its laws of nature are immutable.
  2. Being absolute, nature cannot be correctly described by a theory of relativity.
  3. Nature is made up of matter in motion and static void.
  4. Matter is anything that takes up, or occupies, space, has mass, and reacts to gravity.
  5. Nothing can exist without having mass, except the void.
  6. The void cannot react to gravity, which is a fundamental property of atoms.
  7. Matter is made up of immutable atoms in perpetual motion and void.
  8. Every atom in the universe attracts every other atom with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the atoms and inversely proportional to the distance between them. (This statement is based on Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation.)
  9. Matter changes form and breaks up into constituent atoms, but it never ceases to exist.
  10. Being made up of atoms, the material universe has always existed and will always exist. It will undergo gradual transformation but never end.
  11. Since atoms can neither be created nor destroyed, the amount of matter in the universe will never increase or decrease.
  12. Being infinite, the universe can neither expand nor contract.
  13. The infinite universe is one, not many.
  14. The infinite universe has always existed and will always exist.

Now, with our knowledge of Epicurean Atomism, Newtonian Atomism, and Daltonian Atomism, along with knowledge of my postmodern Atomism, let us contrast them with the foundational principles of the Big Bang theory, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and quanta theory.

The Big Bang theory claims that the universe was created between 10 to 20 billion years ago by a huge explosion out of nothing (the non-existent). The sole foundational principle for this theory is the statement that the galaxies are moving apart. I argue, based on Atomism, that the fact that the galaxies are moving apart in the infinite universe does not mean that the universe was created, especially out of nothing (non-existent). In fact, the theory is scientifically nullified by observation that nothing ever comes into existence out of nothing, only out of already existing matter. This observational evidence alone is sufficient proof that the Big Bang explosion never happened. But, since the theory makes the incredible claim that before the Big Bang explosion, there was no matter, no space, no time, and no energy. I feel impelled to ask Big Bang theorists: “What happened before the bang?” “What banged?” “Where was it located before it exploded?” “Did it have a duration of existence before it exploded?” “Did it exercise energy, or activity, before it exploded?” I ask them these questions only to make them realize how absurd the Big Bang theory is. Only a very credulous person can believe in the theory.

You probably already know that there are two parts to Einstein’s theory of Relativity. The special theory of relativity (1905) and the general theory of relativity (1915). The former part of the theory is built upon two independent foundational principles. One is the statement that there is no observable absolute motion, only relative motion. The other is the statement that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Absolute motion is motion of a body that can be detected by observation made on that body alone. It’s the opposite of relative motion, which is motion of a body that can only be detected in relation to the motion of another body. The foundational principle that states that there is no observable absolute motion is scientifically nullified by the fact that observable self-accelerated motion is observable absolute motion. For example, if a person is running slowly and quickly starts running faster, accelerating the motion of his own body, he will know that his body is moving faster without observing the motion of something extraneous to his body. Let it be clearly understood that a theory of motion should include the observer’s observation of the motion made by his own body. I argue that the observer’s observation of the self-accelerated motion that he makes with his own body is observable absolute motion. It’s where observable relative motion ends.

The foundational principle that states that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light is scientifically nullified by the fact the sun’s gravitational pull on the planets of our solar system, which keeps them in orbit around the sun, travels through space many times faster than light. Sunlight, traveling at a constant speed of 186, 000 miles (300,000 kilometers) a second, takes 8 minutes to reach the Earth, which is 93 millions (150 million kilometers) from the sun. If the sun were suddenly to delay its gravitational pull on the Earth for a second, it would almost instantly fly out of orbit.

According to Einstein, the velocity of light is constant and not dependent on the motion of the source. I argue that it’s impossible for the velocity light to be constant because it’s made up of atoms that inherently possesses the property of gravity and reacts to the gravity of other atoms or objects. Its gravitational interaction with other atoms or objects affects its velocity, causing it to bend and slow down. The velocity of light depends on the way its constituent atoms move. Their movement is the ultimate source of the light. Sometimes they move in a straight flowing stream and sometimes they move in a wave-like fashion. There is no such thing as a wave/ particle paradox; a wavy is a kind of motion of atoms, not a thing that differs from atoms.

According to Einstein, the mass of a body in motion is a function of the energy content and varies with the velocity. I argue that the mass of a body in motion is a function of the power that it possesses, not a content of energy. “Energy” (activity) is the name for what a body does, not a content, or substance, that it possesses. It’s produced by the frequency of the motion of a body under the influence of the power its possesses, and it varies in duration according to the frequency of the motion of the body producing it.

According to Einstein, matter and energy are equivalent. I argue that this is not true, because matter is solid atoms, and thus have no internal structure. They can neither emit nor absorb heat, which Einstein erroneously calls “energy.” Nothing exists but atoms and the void. Matter is moved by its eternally self-moving constituent atoms, not by energy which has no mass of its own and is, therefore, unreal.

According to Einstein, time is relative. I argue that this not true, because time has been flowing from eternity as the continuing unchanging duration of the infinite universe.

According to Einstein, space and time are interdependent and form a four-dimensional continuum. I argue that this cannot be true, because space is empty void. Being so, it is absolutely static, while time is absolutely dynamic. By this, I mean space always remains the same, and that time is always passing. This shows that space and time are independent of each other, not interdependent. It also shows that they do not form a four-dimensional continuum. Being independent from space, time cannot be a continuum of three- dimensional space.

Let it be understood that the universe is made up of three eternal existents− matter, space, and time− but they are not reducible to an inseparable singularity or unity of one.

The foundational principle of Einstein’s general theory of Relativity states that gravity is a property of space, not a force of attraction between objects. This foundational principle is scientifically nullified by the fact that space is pure empty void, or nothingness, through which matter moves. Gravity cannot be a property of the void, or nothingness. Furthermore, the void cannot react to gravity. As atomism explains, every point of space is either absolutely empty or absolutely full, occupied by an absolutely solid atom.

According to Einstein, the presence of matter results in a “warping” of the space-time continuum, so that a body in motion passing nearby will describe a curve, this being the effect known as gravitation, as evidenced by the deflection of rays passing through a gravitational field. This elaborate foundational principle of general relativity is scientifically nullified by the fact that space is the void, and the void, which has no power and no tangibility, cannot be warped by matter. In regards to time, it is independent of matter, space, and of change; therefore like space, it cannot be warped by matter. Since Einstein says that rays are made up of photons, which have mass, it’s impossible for them to be deflected as they pass through a gravitational field, which he says also has no mass. Gravity is solely the force that draws two masses together; it has no affect on space.

The foundational principle of the quanta theory is the statement that light is emitted only in tiny bundles. It describes light as being “grainy” and calls a light “grain” a “quantum”, a Latin word meaning “how much?” The problem with this theory of light is that it does not explain what a grain is made of. I will discuss this problem later.

The theory has evolved into being an explanation of the existence of “fields.” It says that fields are the fundamental stuff of which the universe is made. It defines a “field” as “the space in which a force acts.” It says that there are two different kinds of fields, the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field. It claims that matter is made from these fields, which are regarded as forces of energy. I regard these statements about fields to be the new and broader foundational principles of the theory. These principles are scientifically nullified by the fact that matter itself, which is made up of atoms and void, is the fundamental stuff of which the universe is made. Atoms are the only masses and forces in the universe. Gravity is a fundamental property of the material atoms and electromagnetism is produced by the gravitational interaction of the material atoms, the only forces in the universe. There are no non-material forces of energy existing in the universe.

Let it be understood that energy is the name for what matter does, or what atoms do. It’s not the name of something that has mass, which is the standard for existence. Nothing can exist without having mass, except the void. The concept of energy, as defined in modern physics, does not refer to something that has real or actual existence. It’s defined as the ability to do work. It’s also defined as the ability to change the shape or the phase of matter. Notice that these definitions of energy do not tell us what it is, only what modern physicists say it does or can do. As Feynman explained, “It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is.”9 Keep this fact in mind when you try to make sense of Albert Einstein’s claim that matter can be changed into energy and vice versa. Acceptance of this absurd claim by modern physicists has led them to turn physics into pseudo-physics.

Until theoretical physics is freed from acceptance of the energy myth, it cannot provide us with a valid description of what the universe is made of, how it works, and why it behaves the way it does. As the English theoretical physicist and astronomer David Lindley explains, “A myth is an explanation that everyone agrees on because it is convenient to agree on it, not because its truth can be demonstrated.”10

Epicurus viewed the universe as a purely mechanical system of self-moving, eternal, indestructible, and invisible material atoms. The atoms are in perpetual rapid motion in the void, aggregating themselves into structures and patterns that make up the objects of the universe. Their motion is governed by the three principles of weight (Greek, varos), a minimal random movement called the “swerve” (Greek, clinamen), and collisions. Nothing exists in the universe but atoms and the void. Together, they form the universe and all the things in it. All of the observable motion of things in the universe emerges up from the perpetual motion of the material atoms of which things are made. The eternal and perpetual motion of the atoms can never be destroyed. This is the basis of the law of conservation of atoms and motion.

Epicurus explained that no material thing can be uplifted or travel upwards by its own power, and also that no material thing has power of itsown to move aslant. All material things are naturally forced to move downwards through the void by their own weight. We may call this the origin of their perpetual motion, understanding that the void cannot support the weight of anything but rather must allow it free passage, as its own powerless nature demands. All things in the universe are in perpetual motion because there is no place for them to come to rest in the void.

Atoms, although they vary in size and weight, fall through the void at equal speed, because there is nothing in the void to slow them down or accelerate their motion. They all carry an original momentum that can be transferred to other atoms. When they are traveling straight down through the void by their own weight, at quite indeterminate times and places some swerve to one side and some to the other, initiating new patterns of motion. These new patterns of motion cause them to collide with other atoms and aggregate themselves into whorl centers, or vortices, that give rise to the celestial objects scattered throughout the universe. In this way, all of the objects, or bodies, in the universe have been atomically and mechanically formed and are being formed.

I say mechanically formed because atoms do not post themselves purposely in due order by an act of intelligence, nor do they stipulate what movements each should perform. If it were not for the power of the atoms to swerve from their vertical paths, no collisions would ever occur and no objects would ever be formed. Epicurus’ theory of the atomic swerve was scientifically vulnerable, because he failed to provide a causal explanation for it (anticipating Newton’s explanation of the cause of the atomic swerve.)

About two thousand years after Epicurus’s death, Newton proved that all parts of the universe− stars, moons, and planets – all obeyed the same laws of gravity, inertia, action, and reaction. The law of gravity states that: “Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.”11 According to plasma cosmology, more than 99 percent of the visible universe is made up of ions.

I maintain that ions are aggregates of atoms. Remember that atoms and aggregates of atoms are the only particles, or bodies, in the universe. The law of inertia states that objects at rest, and objects in motion remain in motion with the same velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. The law of action states that the acceleration of an object increases with increased force and decreases with mass, and is in the same direction as the force. The law of reaction states that when one object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.

Newton understood that all objects are made up of atoms and hence that all atoms possess the property of gravity. This discovery would become the scientific explanation and support for Epicurus’ swerve theory of the atoms. Because of this great discovery, we now know why all the planets have round shapes. As they grow, the gravity of their constituent atoms pulls them into a round shape. More broadly speaking, we now also know that the gravitational interaction of atoms in the void ultimately causes all the different phenomena in nature.

I must emphasize the fact that without the existence of the void, there would no interaction of the atoms and hence no formation of objects. There also would be no interaction between objects. Nothing would be happenings in the universe. There would no place for anything to happen. Understanding this fact, Newton believed the existence of the void, which he described as “absolute space.” He believed that the sun’s gravitational pull on the planets of our solar system travels through space instantaneously to keep them in orbit around the sun. By instantaneously, he meant at infinitesimal speed. He understood that the universe, as a receptacle, operates on the basis of “absolute time,” flowing uniformly and forwardly and independently of the non-everlasting objects, or aggregates of atoms, contained in it.

According to theory of Atomism, time has been flowing uniformly and forwardly from eternity, independently of and unaffected by the things moving within it. It does not slow down, speed up, or stop for any reason. Being absolute, it passes at the same constant rate for both stationary and mobile things, which I calculate to be at the rate of one tenth (1/10) of a second per second.

As you can see, when we unify Epicurus’ mechanics and Newton’s mechanics, we gain a profound and indubitable explanation of what the universe is made of, the origin of its motion, how it works, and why it works the way it does. Both mechanics are scientifically testable and can hold up against any challenging theory. Let’s examine the challenges by the Big Bang theory, Einstein’s theory of Relativity, and quanta theory, by examining their foundational principles.

The Big Bang theory claims that the universe was created 10 to 20 billion years ago by a huge explosion out of nothing (the non-existent). This claim is scientifically nullified by observation that nature never creates anything out of nothing, but only out of already existing matter, which is made up of eternal and indestructible atoms.

Einstein’s theory of Relativity claims that matter can be changed into energy and vice versa. This foundational principle of the theory is scientifically nullified by observation that matter changes form but never becomes something that has no mass.

Quanta theory claims that the space existing between the bodies of matter in the universe is filled with nothing but quantum fields, in which such non-material forces as gravity, magnetism, and electricity act. This claim is scientifically nullified by observation that gravity, magnetism, and electricity are properties of matter, not space between bodies of matter.

The scientific nullifications of the foundational principles of the above theories challenging Epicurus and Newton’s mechanics and Dalton’s Atomic theory, prove that modern physics, which is governed by those theories, is definitely pseudo-physics. It does not give us a valid description of the universe. I will reiterate: If the foundational principle of a theory does not hold, neither will the rest of the theory. On the basis of Einstein’s special theory of relativity, modern physics claims that there is no observable absolute motion, only relative motion. Absolute motion is motion of a body or part of a body that can be detected by observation made on that body alone. Relative motion is motion of a body that can only be detected in relation to something else. We can detect the movement of any part of our own body without reference to something extraneous to our body. If you are hanging in the air on a rope with your eyes closed, and your body is spinning, you will know that you are spinning without reference to something extraneous to your body. If your spinning accelerates or decelerates, you will realize it. So, as we can see, absolute observable motion does exist. Not all motion is relative.

Einstein’s special theory of Relativity claims that light travels at a constant speed in the void, but we know that this not true because gravity reaches into the void and slows it down. It claims that light is made up massless particles called photons and is the fastest thing in the universe. But theory of Atomism proves that there is no such thing as a massless particles and that light is made up of atoms, the smallest masses that can exist. It also proves that atoms move faster than light. Being an aggregate of atoms, light is effected by gravity in much the same way as other fast moving aggregates, or
objects. The more gravity forces it to bend or swerve from its straight trajectory, the slower it moves. The atoms that avoid swerving and escape aggregation, move through the void much faster than light.

Astonishingly, Einstein’s special theory of Relativity claims that sunlight travels through the space of our solar system faster than the sun’s gravitational pull on the planets, which keeps them in orbit around the sun. The absurdity of this claim is realized when we understand that sunlight, according to Einstein, travels at a constant speed of 186,000 miles (300,000 kilometers) a second, in a vacuum. It takes sunlight over 8 minutes to reach the Earth. If the sun, which is located 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from the Earth, were suddenly to disappear or delay its gravitational pull on the Earth for a few moments, the Earth would without a moment’s delay fly out of orbit. As Newton explained, the sun’s gravitational on the Earth and other planets is instantaneous, as for as time measurement is concern. This means that it takes the sun’s gravitational pull on the Earth only a second to happen, from a distance of 93 million miles. Knowing this, it makes no sense to claim that light is the fastest thing in the universe.

According to Einstein’s general theory of Relativity, space is a finite, having a boundary. But, the theory of Atomism proves that the universe is boundless in all directions. It does this by showing that the universe is restrained from setting any limit to itself by nature, which compels body to be bounded by void and void by body. Thus nature either makes them both infinite in alternation, or else one of them, if it is not bounded by the other must extend in a pure state without limit.

Also, according to Einstein’s general theory of Relativity, gravity is not a force of attraction between two masses, but rather a property of space. The theory of Atomism proves that gravity is a fundamental property of atoms and that space is nothingness, the void. The void possesses no qualities whatever.

Einstein’s theory of general of Relativity even goes to the extreme of claiming that space is as dynamic as matter; it moves as morphs. But, the theory of Atomism proves that space is static; it cannot undergo changes of any kind. It is nothingness and hence cannot be made to move or be affected by anything.

Quanta theory claims that material objects are not made up of solid, indivisible atoms, but that the atom itself is divisible into many constituent particles, held together by non-gravitational forces. It describes many of these particles as point-like particles. It defines a point-like particle as a particle that lacks spatial extension; it’s zero-dimensional. It is important to realize that these are mathematically idealized particles that cannot react to gravity, because they have no mass. The theory of Atomism proves that no such particles exist. It shows that in the real world all particles have mass and are three-dimensional. Atoms are the smallest three-dimensional particles of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest three-dimensional building-blocks of matter. In modern physics, we hear about point particles, mathematical particles that have position, but no length, width, or height. In the real world, there are no such particles.

I began this essay by stating that I believe that the surest and quickest way to free science from the modern pseudo-physics is to show a contrast between the postmodern Atomism (or postmodern physics, or postmodern natural philosophy) that I founded in 2007, with my book The End of Pseudo-Science, and the foundational principles of the three theories that dominate modern physics: the Big Bang theories, Einstein’s theory of Relativity, and quanta theory. I believe that I have succeeded what I stated.



References:

  1. Quoted in Leonard Peikoff, OBJECTIVISM: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand (New York: Dutton Adult, 1991), p. 35.
  2. Ayn Rand, Philosophy: Who Needs It (Indianapolis: Bodds- Merrill Co., Inc., 1982), p. 62.
  3. Catherine Osborne, PRESORATIC PHILOSOPHY: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 56.
  4. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 1X, pp. 44-45.
  5. Richard P. Feynman, Six Easy Pieces (Cambrigde, Mass.: Perseus Books, 1995), p. 47.
  6. Isaac Newton, magnum opus Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 1687, Book 3.
  7. Isaac Newton, Opticks, Book 3, Part 1 (1704).
  8. I. Bernard Cohen, Isaac Newton’s Papers & Letters On Natural Philosophy and related documents (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958), p. 823.
  9. Feynman, Six Easy Pieces, p. 71. (New York:
  10. David Lindley, The End of Physics (New York: Basic Books, 1993), p. 255.
  11. Newton, magnum opus Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 1687, Book 3.