^{2}

As the theory of Atomism, the original quantum mechanics, also known as the Atomic theory, explains, the universe is made up of matter and nothing can exist which is non-material, except void space. Matter is anything that takes up (or occupies) space, has mass, and reacts to gravity. Void is pure empty space or nothingness. It’s the opposite of matter, which is made up of atoms. Atoms are the smallest quanta (singular quantum) of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. Nothing can be smaller than an atom but another atom. Atoms are the smallest quanta of matter from which nature forms, increases, and sustains all things, and into which nature again resolves them, when they disintegrate, or decay.

They are the ultimate instruments of nature’s work. They all have the ability to do work because they possess an innate property of power. Power is the ability or capacity to do, act, or bring about a particular result or certain effect. Since nothing exists but atoms and void, atoms are the only things that possess power in the universe. Void space has no properties whatever, no powers, no potentiality, no tangibility in any way. Naturally, every object composed of atoms is a source of atomic power. Its chief sources of power include (1) the sun, (2) humans and animals, (3) water, (4) wind, (5) steam, (6) internal-combustion engines, (7) electricity, and (8) nuclear explosion.

The power of an object (at both the micro and macro levels) can be calculated using the following mathematical formula: P=f × s (where P is power, f is force, and s is speed). This formula says that the power of an object is equal to force times speed. Force is equal to an object’s mass times its acceleration. Let it be understood that the atoms of which all things are made are infinitesimal particles, having a measure exceeding zero by less than any specified number, as close to zero as one pleases. I estimate that an average sized atom has a mass of 1 × 10^{-30} kilograms.

The most intriguing power possessed by atoms is their innate power of gravity. As the British mathematician, astronomer, and natural philosopher Isaac Newton (1642-1727) explained, “Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of the masses and to the inverse square of the distance between them.”^{1} This theory of the force, or strength, or pulling power of gravity, may be mathematically expressed by the algebraic equation: G=m^{1} m^{2}/d^{2} (G is gravitation, m is mass, and d is distance).

In 1687, Newton said in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Book I, “The least parts of bodies are all extended, and hard and impenetrable, and moveable, and endowed with their proper inertia.”^{2} This description of the least parts of bodies clearly shows that Newton believed in the Greek theory of atoms. In 1730, in his Opticks, he rhetorically asked the following three questions: (1) “Do not Bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and is not action (other things Being equal) strongest at the least distance?”^{3} (2) “Are not the Rays of light very small Bodies emitted from shining Substances?”^{4} (3) “Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another, and may not bodies receive much of their activity from the particles of light which enter into their composition? The changing of bodies into light, and light into bodies, is very conformable to the course of nature, which seems delighted with transmutations.”^{5}

Newton believed the sun’s gravitational pulling power controls the entire solar system — it holds planets, asteroids, comets, and smaller bodies in orbit. The farther known body, Pluto, is firmly by the force of gravity even when it is about 4 million miles (over 7 billion kilometers) away from the sun, the largest aggregate of atoms in the solar system, located at its center.

The sun, which is ultimately powered by the gravitational interaction of its self-moving constituent and atoms, has an atomic mass of 1.99 × 1030 kg. The atomic mass of a single atom is about 1 × 10^{-30} g. This means that the sun’s mass of 1.99 × 1030 kg. divided by 1 × 10^{-30} g, the atomic mass of a single atom, is equal to 1990 × 1060 grams. The sun is losing 4 billion kilograms of mass a second.

The gravitational pulling power of the Sun, which makes up about 99.9 percent of the mass of the solar system, extends far beyond Pluto. Clusters of galaxies millions of light-years across are held together by their own atomic gravity.

I will reiterate: An atom is the smallest quantum of matter that can exist. Nothing can be smaller than an atom but another atom. Being made up of absolutely solid and eternal and indestructible atoms, matter can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only change form or be broken up into constituent atoms.

In 1905, Albert Einstein postulated in his theory of relativity that matter can be changed into energy and energy into matter. This postulate is mathematically expressed by the famous equation E=mc^{2}, where E is the energy produced, m is the matter, or mass, and c is the speed of light. To understand what this equation means, you need to know what energy was to Einstein. He regarded electromagnetic radiation as energy, such as light, radio waves, X-rays, cosmic rays, and the gamma rays given off by radioactive substances. He held that light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation is made up of photons. He described photons as particles that have no mass and no electric charge and are indivisible. They travel, he said, in a vacuum at the speed of light, which is at 186,000 miles (300,000 kilometers) a second.

Einstein failed to realize that radiation is a form of matter. It has mass, takes up space, and reacts to gravity. Every physicist knows that radiation is made up particles. A “particle” is a bit of matter. However, before him, radiation had become regarded as not being matter and classified as energy, which was regarded as a non-material phenomenon. It was held that energy exists in several different forms. Some are mechanical, heat, radiant, chemical, and electrical. It was understood that energy can be changed from one form to another but not created or destroyed. The same was understood about matter. What was not understood, and is still not understood, is that there is no such thing as non-material phenomena, and hence it is wrong to classify radiation as non-material phenomena, or energy. Radiation is matter, and energy is only what it can do or does. Therefore, energy cannot be classified as something that matter can be changed into and that exists separately from matter. This shows clearly that Einstein’s equation E=mc^{2} is wrong. It must be replaced by the equation P=f × s. Never can the properties and energies (or activities), of matter be separated from it.

As for the equation needed to express energy as the rate of doing work, we may use the equation E=w/t (where E is energy, w is work, and t is time).