The Atomic Theory Versus the Standard Model of Elementary – Particles
Published: December 18, 2010

According to modern particle physicists, there are only twelve particles and four forces that we need to explain everything in the known world. They call this idea the standard model of elementary particle physics – or the standard model, for short. The particles fall into two main classes: hadrons and leptons. Hadrons include protons, neutrons, quarks, gluons, Ws, and Ws. Leptons, the other class, include electrons, muons, neutrinos, photons, electron neutrinos, and tau teutrinos. All of these particles are erroneously described as “subatomic particles.”

I say this because there are no such things as subatomic particles. Atoms are the smallest particles of matter that can exist; the ultimate and smallest division of matter. As the Atomists explain, if matter is repeatedly cut up, the end result will be uncuttable pieces of matter or “atoms.” Some of the particles are said to be point-like particles, particles that have no dimensions. In the real world, all objects are three-dimensional, having height, width, and depth. The photons are said to be particles that have no mass. In the real world, all objects have mass. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Nothing can exist without mass, except empty space. It’s important to understand that a particle is a very small piece of solid matter.

The particles described as making up the standard model of elementary- particle physics cannot possibly be used to explain anything in the real world. For this reason, I do not believe in the existence of the particles of particle-physics.

Being an Atomist, I understand that only the atoms that make up all the matter in the universe can be used to explain things in the real world. So, I decided to develop a tentative standard model of the atoms of Atomism, also Known as the Atomic theory. As I have explained many times in my writings on the nature of atoms, I maintain that all of nature can be explained by describing the fundamental properties of the atoms and aggregates of atoms and their basic functions. Atoms possess such properties as size, shape, solidity, weight, motion, gravity, position, inertia, arrangement, and repellency. Atoms may differ in size and shape but not in substance, which is a mystery. I say that the substance is a mystery because no one knows what it is. Some atoms are smooth, some round, some needle-like, some uneven, some hooked, some concave, some convex, and others have innumerable other differences. We know that atoms possess these properties because they have produced all of the obvious variety of geometric shapes in the world.

During the second half of the 400’s BC, the Atomist Democritus combined the theory of Atomism with the theory of elements. He thought that were only four basic elements, or substances − earth, water, air, and fire. He also thought that there were only four shapes of atoms, one for each element. Modern science has identified over ninety-two chemical elements, such as iron, gold, carbon, oxygen, etc., from which the entire universe appears to be made. A chemical element is substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. All elements are made up of parts that give them their identity, which I call the minima naturalia, or smallest parts of identity. If these parts are subdivided, the element will lose its identity. For example, gold is made up of minima naturalia that look like gold. If its divided into its minima naturalia, the parts themselves will look like gold. But, if you subdivide the minima natural, the parts will not look like gold. The element will no longer be gold. It’s important to understand that the minima naturalia are made up of invisible and indivisible atoms.

Dalton’s chemical theory of elements based upon the Atomic Theory, combined with the theory of the minima naturalia, provides us with a perfect basis for understanding the chemical nature of the universe. It treats the combining of atoms in a compound as their simple juxtaposition without their undergoing any internal change, each atom under the influence of Isaac Newton’s three- laws of motion and law of universal gravitation.

I hypothesize that at the minima naturalia level atoms have the power (Greek dynamis) to gravitate themselves into very dense aggregates, or compounds, some with and some without nuclei, within which they vibrate intensely and produce heat and light. We call this radioactivity. Radioactivity occurs naturally in the elements radium and uranium. Elements do not need nuclei to be radioactive. Not all elements have nuclei, yet they can give off radiation. The radiation given off is composed of atoms.