The Role of Observation in Cosmology
Published: January 10, 2010

As you probably already know, cosmology is the scientific study of the structure and workings of the universe. Cosmology is studied by observation, based on a scientific theory of matter. As the American sociologists Richard P. Appelbaum and William J. Chambliss explain, “Two scientists observing the same event often have different interpretations, depending on the theory they bring to their observations. For example, an astronomer looking at the sunset knows that the sun appears to be setting only because the earth is rotating around its axis; it is the motion of the earth, not the sun, that gives the appearance of the setting sun. Before astronomy came to accept this theory, however, astronomers trained in the scientific method believed that the earth remained still while the sun slowly moved below the horizon. Their reasoning was based on their theory – which stemmed from both common sense and religious –beliefs– that the earth, as God’s prize creation, lay at the center of the universe. If a scientist of today were to sit side by side with a scientist of the fourteenth century and observe a sunset, the two would interpret their observations differently.”1

In modern cosmology 1927, the scientific study of the structure and workings of the universe has been based on the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe, which is based on Albert Einstein’s theory of matter and energy. It holds that matter can be changed into energy and vice versa. Matter is the “stuff” that the material universe is made of. No other kind of stuff is known to exist. To understand the structure and workings of the universe, you need to know the structure and behavior of matter. Can matter really be changed into energy? What is energy? How is it distinguished from matter? Matter is anything that takes up (or occupies) space, has mass, and reacts to gravity. It is said to be distinguished from energy, which causes objects to move or change, but which has no volume or mass of its own. According to the theory of Atomism, matter is made up of absolutely solid immutable atoms. Matter can be changed from one form of aggregate of atoms into another, but never into non-matter. Energy is regarded as not being matter. As the American theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize winner Richard P. Feynman (1918-88) explained, “It Is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is.”2

According to the theory of Atomism, all matter possesses power from its sheer existence. All produced by the power of the self-moving atoms of which matter is made. Power is defined as “the ability to do, act, or bring about particular effect or result. Energy is defined as “the activity of matter, or atoms. It is not some that matter can be changed into. Matter and (its motion) is eternal. Let no one think that the atoms that make of matter (and their motion) is reducible to something more fundamental, such as non- material energy.

Obviously from what I have explained above, cosmologists who believe in Atomism ‘s theory of the eternality of matter and its motion and those who believe in the Big Bang theory’s of the non-eternality of matter and energy, which is based on Einstein’s theory of relativity, will interpret their observations of the natural phenomena of the universe differently.

Being an Atomist, I regard the Big Bang theory of the universe to be a false description of the origin, structure, and workings of the universe, based on Einstein’s false theory of matter and energy. The universe has no origin; it has always existed. It does not have an energy structure, but rather an atomic one. Its workings are solely atomic in nature.

  1. Richard P. Appelbaum and William J. Chambliss, Sociology, Second Edition (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1997), p. 14.
  2. Richard P. Feynman, Six Easy Pieces (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Books, 1995), p. 71